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牛津高中英语模块一(第五讲)

时间:2011-07-05  来源:  作者:邵磊

牛津高中英语模块一(第五讲)

【教学内容与教学要求】
一、 教学内容:
牛津高中英语模块一Unit 3(上)
二、教学要求:
1.学会谈论健康、锻炼,描述问题。
2.学习e-mail的写作。
3.语法:非限制性定语从句、反意疑问句。
【知识重点与学习难点】
一、 重要单词:
stay(系动词:保持), slim, figure, weight, ashamed, recover, failure, contain, chemical, seldom, damage, attractive, touching, embarrassed, pressure, overweight, diet, properly, skinny, consider, fit(强健的), pill, appearance, especially, amazed, archery, squash, aerobics(有氧运动), triathlon(铁人三项), category, partial(部分的), response, purpose, confirmation, actually, recognize.

二、重点词组:
work out锻炼、训练, go on diets/a diet实行节食, in secret私自, side effect副作用, put on weight体重增加, lose weight减肥, be ashamed of对….感到羞耻, an exact match for和….完全匹配的…, follow one’s advice听从某人的建议, sound fun听起来象是件有趣的事, team sport团队运动, build up增强, regret doing sth后悔做了某事, risk doing sth冒做某事的风险.
三、【语法术语】
non-restrictive attributive clause非限制性定语从句, question tag反意疑问句, positive statement肯定的陈述句, negative statement否定的陈述句, personal pronoun人称代词, auxiliary verb助动词, model verb情态动词, imperative clause祈使句.
【难点讲解】
1. What do you do to keep yourself looking good and feeling good?
你是怎样保持自己良好的外在形象和健康的身体状况的?
询问别人怎样做某事的可以用“how do you…..?”也可以用“what do you do to….?”。例如:
How did you make the baby stop crying?
What did you do to make the baby stop crying?
Keep yourself looking good and feeling good是一个“动+宾语+补语”结构,现在分词短语looking good and feeling good作宾补。
2. Dying to be thin….
这是个双关语,既可以理解成“差一点为瘦身而死”,也可以理解为“迫切希望瘦身”。课文主人公Amy因为急切希望保持苗条的身材服用了一种减肥药造成肝功能衰竭,差点丢了性命。用这个双关语作课文的标题非常巧妙。
Dying 的本意是“快要死去的,而dying to do/be+adj或dying for+n则表示“迫切希望…..”。例如:
He is dying to see his homeland again.
I’m dying for a drink of rum.
She is dying for a chance to be back on the stage.
3. I know the pressure to stay slim is a problem, especially for an actress.
我知道保持苗条的压力是一个,对于一位女演员来说更是如此。
4. I’m taking weight-loss pills called Fat-Less, which are quite popular among young women here.
我在服用一种叫“”的减肥药,这种药在年轻女性中很流行。
medicine 泛指药物,尤指内服药,表示“治疗…的药”时后面跟介词for: the medicine for cold。 Pill药片、药丸, ,表示“治疗…的药”时前面加定语:sleeping pills 。drug药剂、麻醉药、毒品,drug(s) 表示“治疗…的药”时和for/to treat连用。
5. She says health is priceless, and I agree, but then I look so slim at the moment.
她说健康是无价的,我同意她的说法,但是我现在看起来非常苗条。
后缀less加在名词之后表示“没有、缺乏”例如:hopeless, helpless, careless, homeless.注意, priceless和worthless, valueless的意思不同。Price指价格,加less表示“无法估价的”;worth, value指价值,加less则表示“没有价值的。
Then和but连用,起到增强语气的作用。
6. They contain a harmful chemical that caused my liver to fail.
那些药里含有一种有害的化学成分,导致我肝功能衰竭。
7. I think you look great as you are.
我认为你现在这样保持自然本色看起来就很棒。
As you are是状语从句意思是“以你本来的面目”
As作连词的用法较复杂,可以表示“当….时候、因为、既然、相比、虽然,按照…做、象…一样、当做,还可以用来指代上文中提到的事情以避免重复。其中作“虽然、用来指代上文中提到的事情”两种用法比较特殊,请看例句:
Alone as he is, he does not feel lonely.
Try as you would, you could not make him change his mind.
Harry is unusually tall, as are his brothers.

8. Remember to take it slowly at first and you will build your strength up quickly.
记住刚开始锻炼时要慢些,你的体力很快就会增强。
Take 在这里意思是“从事…活动”it 指代sport/exercise。
Build up增强、增加,名词build-up,例如:
The build-up of Japanese forces makes the neighboring countries very uneasy.
9. Some sports are usually done indoors, while others are done outdoors.
一些体育活动通常是在室内进行的,另一些则是在室外。
Indoor、outdoor是形容词,只能作定语使用; indoors/outdoors是副词,作地点状语。例如:
It is an indoor sport.
We can play the game indoors.

【语法】
一、非限制性定语从句

1) 定语从句有限制性和非限制性两种。限制性定语从句是先行词不可缺少的部分,去掉它主句意思往往不明确;非限制性定语从句是先行词的附加说明,去掉了也不会影响主句的意思,它与主句之间通常用逗号分开,例如:
This is the house which we bought last month.这是我们上个月买的那幢房子。(限制性)
The house, which we bought last month, is very nice.这幢房子很漂亮,是我们上个月买的。(非限制性)
2) 当先行词是专有名词或物主代词和指示代词所修饰时,其后的定语从句通常是非限制性的,例如:
Charles Smith, who was my former teacher, retired last year. 查理•史密斯去年退休了,他曾经是我的老师。
My house, which I bought last year, has got a lovely garden. 我去年买的的那幢房子带着个漂亮的花园。
This novel, which I have read three times, is very touching. 这本小说很动人,我已经读了三遍。

3) 非限制性定语从句还能将整个主句作为先行词, 对其进行修饰, 这时从句谓语动词要用第三人称单数,例如:
He seems not to have grasped what I meant, which greatly upsets me. 他似乎没抓住我的意思,这使我心烦。
Liquid water changes to vapor, which is called evaporation. 液态水变为蒸汽,这就叫做蒸发。

说明:关系代词that和关系副词why不能引导非限制性定语从句。

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